PPTs of Chemistry
“The decomposition of a compound using electricity is called electrolysis of the compound.”
In electrolysis, electricity is used for carrying out a chemical change. The apparatus in which electrolysis is carried out is called a voltameter. During electrolysis, the cations being positively charged get attracted towards the negatively charged electrode (cathode) and anions being negatively charged get attracted towards the positively charged electrode (anode). Cations and anions get discharge on the respective electrode by gaining or losing electrons at the respective electrode.
It is the minimum potential difference required to be applied across the electrodes to carry out the electrolysis and subsequent discharge of the ions on the electrode.
In general, the discharge potential of an ion is equal to the electrode potential of the respective ion.
When two or more ions compete to get discharged on an electrode, then the ions having low discharge potential preferentially discharges on respective electrodes.
Here, the ions having lower electrode potential (reduction potential) get discharged preferentially at the anode while those having higher electrode potential (reduction potential) get discharged preferentially at the cathode.
Overvoltage or bubble voltage
For discharge of a metal at the cathode, the voltage required is almost equal to its standard electrode potential. However, for the liberation of gases such as oxygen some extra voltage is required, which is called overvoltage or bubble voltage.
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