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Maximize Marks in Chemistry

What are the important topics of chemistry class 12 for the board examination? How to maximize marks in the Chemistry class 12 board examination? What are the topics of chemistry to be covered at the last hour of our preparation for the class 12 board examination?

These are the most emphasized and frequently asked questions of the students preparing chemistry for the CBSE, the ICSC, and different state board examinations. To answer these questions and finding the important topics of chemistry class 12 is really a challenging task. However, considering these questions frequently asked by the students of class 12 and based on my 25 years of teaching experiences of these examinations, I have prepared a checklist of the important topics of chemistry class 12 for the last hour’s preparation of board examinations. All these important topics of chemistry class 12 are listed here and they can surely maximize your marks in chemistry.

Last Hours Preparation Tips For the CBSE, the ICSC, and State Board Examinations

Important Topics of Chemistry Class 12   
(a) Physical Chemistry

Solid-state

  • Difference between crystalline and amorphous solids
  • Different types of unit cells and the number of atoms per unit cells
  • Packing efficiency especially of bcc and fcc/ccp crystals
  • Crystal density and numerical based on crystal density
  • Imperfections in solids especially Schottky and Frenkel defects
  • F- centers
  • Magnetic properties of solids especially ferromagnetic, ferrimagnetic, and anti-ferromagnetic substances
  • Electrical properties of solids especially n and p-type semiconductors
  • Piezoelectric effect

Solution

  • Modes of expressing the concentration of solutions especially molarity, molality and mole fraction, and numerical
  • Raoult’s law
  • Ideal and nonideal solutions
  • Positive and negative deviation from Raoult’s law
  • Colligative properties
  • Relative lowering in vapor pressure
  • Elevation in boiling point
  • Depression in freezing point
  • Osmotic pressure
  • Numericals based on colligative properties
  • The equation for ideal solution/ vant Hoff equation
  • Exo and endo osmosis and reasoning questions
  • Vant Hoff factor
  • Relation between vant Hoff factor (i) and degree of dissociation (α)

Chemical Kinetics

  • Expression of the rate of the reactions
  • Difference between molecularity and order of the reactions
  • Pseudo order reactions with examples
  • The equation for zero/first-order reactions and numerical based on these reactions
  • Activation energy
  • Role of catalyst
  • Arrhenius equation and numerical based on Arrhenius equation 
  • Collision theory

Electro Chemistry

  • Conductivity, molar conductivity, and Numericals
  • Effect of dilution on conductivity and molar conductivity
  • Cell constant and its experimental determination
  • Kohlrausch law and numericals
  • Nernst equation and numerical based on Nernst equation
  • Lead storage cells especially reactions involved in charging and discharging
  • Fuel cells

Surface Chemistry

  • Difference between physical and chemical adsorption
  • Difference between lyophilic and lyophobic colloids
  • Bredig’s arc method
  • Peptization
  • Dialysis and Electrodialysis
  • Tyndall effect
  • Electrophoresis
  • Hardy- Schultze rule
  • Protection of colloids
  • Emulsion and its types
  • The cleansing action of soap

 (b)Inorganic Chemistry

p-Block Elements

  • Inert pair effect
  • Hydrides of nitrogen/Oxygen/Halogen families
  • Oxides of nitrogen and phosphorus
  • Oxo acids of phosphorus / Sulphur/ Chlorine
  • Allotropes of phosphorus/sulfur
  • Inter halogen Compounds
  • Compound of Xenon
  • Why xenon is most reactive amongst different inert gases?

d and f-block Elements

  • Colored ion formation
  • Magnetic properties of metals
  • Lanthanide contraction
  • Oxidizing behavior of Potassium permagnet
  • Preparation method of Potassium dichromate

Isolation of metals

  • Froth floatation method
  • Chemical leaching
  • Electrical refining
  • Vapour phase refining (Mond’s process of refining of nickel and Arkel process of refining of Zirconium and Titanium)
  • What are the conditions under which Mg can reduce alumina?

Coordination Chemistry

  • IUPAC Naming of complexes
  • Valence Bond Theory
  • Crystal Field Theory
  • Isomerism in complexes
  • Synergic bonding in metal carbonyls

(c) Organic Chemistry

Haloalkanes and Haloarenes

  • Vinylic, Allylic, and Benzylic halides
  • SN1 and SN2 reactions
  • Why halogen atom of haloarenes is highly unreactive in nature?
  • Give the reason- Haloalkanes are insoluble in water.
  • Named reactions
  • Sandmeyer’s reaction
  • Finkelstein reaction
  • Swart reaction
  • Wurtz-Fittig reaction

Alcohols, Phenols, and Ethers

  • Preparation of primary, secondary, and tertiary alcohols using Grignard’s reagent
  • Preparation of phenol from chlorobenzene/aniline
  • Dehydration of alcohols
  • Dehydrogenation of primary and secondary alcohols
  • Nitration of phenol
  • Bromination of phenol
  • Reimer Tiemann reaction
  • Williamson’s synthesis
  • The reaction of ether with HI

Carbonyl Compounds

  • Ozonolysis
  • Aldol condensation
  • Cannizzaro’s reaction
  • Etard reaction
  • Haloform reaction
  • Iodoform test

Nitrogen-containing Compounds

  • The relative basic strength of primary, secondary and tertiary amines.
  • Reduction products of aniline in different mediums
  • Halogenation of aniline
  • Nitration of aniline
  • Hinsberg’s test

Chemistry in Daily life

  • Thermoplastic and thermosetting plastic
  • Nylon 6 and nylon 6,6
  • Natural and synthetic rubber
  • Buns-S and Buna – N
  • Bulkanization of rubber
  • Artificial sweeteners
  • Analgesics
  • Antipyretics
  • Sulpha drugs
  • Tranquilizers
  • Sedatives
  • Addictive and non-addictive drugs
  • Soap and detergents
  • Types of detergents
  • The cleansing action of soap
  • Preservatives

Download pdf notes of Chemistry for Class 9 from the following link-

Class 9 Chemistry notes

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Class 10 Chemistry Notes

Download pdf notes of Chemistry for Class 11 from the following link-

Class 11 Chemistry notes

Download pdf notes of Chemistry for Class 12 from the following link-

Class 12 Chemistry Notes

Download pdf notes of Chemistry for Class 12 (Hindi Medium) from the following link-

Class 12 Chemistry Notes in Hindi

Download pdf notes of Chemistry for IIT-JEE/NEET from the following link- 

Chemistry Notes for IIT-JEE | NEET

About Shailendra Shukla Sir

By profession, Shailendra Shukla Sir is a senior executive officer in a very reputed power generation company. He has been a professional teacher of competitive chemistry for a long time and his sole aim is to provide quality guidance to the aspirants of UPSC, State PSCs, IIT-JEE, AIIMS, NEET, and Academic examinations, especially to those who belong to the economically vulnerable class of society and cannot afford heavy tuition fees of professional institutions. 
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