Group 14 Elements (Carbon Family)
Group 14 elements include a total of all five elements namely, Carbon (C), silicon (Si), germanium (Ge), tin (Sn), and lead (Pb).
Carbon is the seventeenth most abundant element in the earth’s crust by mass. It is widely distributed in nature in free as well as in the combined state. In the elemental state, it is available as coal, graphite, and diamond. In a combined state, it is present as metal carbonates, hydrocarbons, and carbon dioxide gas (0.03%) in the air. In fact, carbon is the most versatile element in the world. It is an essential constituent of all living organisms. Naturally, occurring carbon contains two stable isotopes i.e. C12 and C13. In addition to these, there is a third isotope of carbon i.e. C14 which is radioactive in nature with a half-life of 5770 years and used for radiocarbon dating.
Silicon is the second most abundant element on the earth’s crust (27.7 % by mass) and is present in nature in the form of silica and silicates. It is a very important component of ceramics, glass, and cement. Germanium exists only in traces in nature. Tin occurs mainly as cassiterite (SnO2) and lead as galena (PbS).
Ultrapure forms of germanium and silicon are used to make transistors and semiconductor devices.
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Important Reference Books
(1) Physics- (1) Concept of Physics by H.C. Verma
(2) Modern’s abc of Objective Physics
(2) Chemistry- (1) Dr. O.P. Tandon (GRB Publication)
(2) Modern’s abc of Objective Chemistry
(3) Mathematics- (1) Mathematics for Class XI and XII by R D Sharma
(2) Objective Mathematics by R D Sharma
(4) Biology- (1) Biology by Trueman
(2) Modern’s abc of Objective Biology
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