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Configuration of Carbohydrates

PPTs of Chemistry for Tutors/YouTubers
PPTs of Chemistry for Tutors/YouTubers

https://chemistryforcompetition.com/chemistry-ppts-for-tutors/

Cofiguration of Carbohydrates

(D and L- System of Naming)

The spatial arrangement of different atoms and groups around the chiral centers of a compound is called the configuration of the compounds. The relative configuration of carbohydrates is expressed with respect to the configuration of glyceraldehyde.

Download complete pdf notes of Configuration of Carbohydrates from the following link-

pdf Notes of Configuration of Carbohydrates

Important Tips for Preparation of IIT-JEE/NEET

  • Select a good mentor for all the subjects. Several educational channels and the best Physics, Chemistry, and Biology mentors are available on YouTube for free. You may follow one of them for all the subjects rather than wandering here and there.
  • Centralize your study to the NCERT books and one reference book each for Physics, Chemistry, and Biology. Don’t follow too many books otherwise, you would not be able to complete your syllabus. Always remember, different books differ being only nineteen or twenty in text quality, but never differ of being nineteen and twenty-five. 
  • Follow quality notes of a good mentor for all the subjects. Don’t run behind the brand, but run behind the concise and effective notes of your mentor.
  • Make your own capsule notes for revision.
  • Maintain consistency and regularity in your preparation.
  • Revise the prepared topics regularly. Always remember, revision is not a waste of time but it makes you perfect. Always keep in mind that, “Revision is division” i.e. Revision improves your marks and ultimately your rank in the final selection.
  • Solve practice problems and previous year’s papers in the specified time frame. It would help you to finish your paper timely in the final examination.
  • Always be confident in your preparation but never be overconfident. Always read the question carefully and then answer. You usually make mistakes in overconfidence and it has to be reduced.

Important Reference Books

(1) Physics-          (1) Concept of Physics by H.C. Verma

                             (2) Modern’s abc of Objective Physics

(2) Chemistry-     (1) Dr. O.P. Tandon (GRB Publication)

                            (2) Modern’s abc of Objective Chemistry

(3) Biology-         (1) Biology by Trueman 

                            (2) Modern’s abc of Objective Biology

Download pdf notes of chemistry for NEET/AIIMS and IIT-JEE from the following link-

Chemistry Notes for IIT-JEE | NEET

Download pdf notes of chemistry for Class 11 from the following link-

https://chemistryforcompetition.com/class-11-chemistry-notes/

Download pdf notes of chemistry for Class 12 (English Medium) from the following link-

Class 12 Chemistry Notes

Download pdf notes of chemistry for Class 12 (Hindi Medium) from the following link-

Class 12 Chemistry Notes in Hindi

About Shailendra Shukla Sir

By profession, Shailendra Shukla Sir is a senior executive officer in a very reputed power generation company. He has been a professional teacher of competitive chemistry for a long time and his sole aim is to provide quality guidance to the aspirants of UPSC, State PSCs, IIT-JEE, AIIMS, NEET, and Academic examinations, especially to those who belong to the economically vulnerable class of society and cannot afford heavy tuition fees of professional institutions. 
For Video lectures and Live Classes of Shailendra Shukla sir visit “Exacademy” youtube channel https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCLPxVWdS2VBCN8YZ7Xaqnlg

EXACADEMY
For pdf notes, video lectures, and online tests Download the “Exacademy” Mobile App. Click Here for download-
http://onelink.to/exacademy
You may also follow Shailendra Shukla Sir on the “Exacademy” and “Chemistry for Competitions” telegram channels and the “Exacademy” Facebook group.
The link for the “Exacademy” Facebook group is here-
https://www.facebook.com/Exacademy-103655395096011/

 

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Cyclic Structure of Glucose

Carbohydrates
PPTs of Chemistry for Tutors/YouTubers
PPTs of Chemistry for Tutors/YouTubers

https://chemistryforcompetition.com/chemistry-ppts-for-tutors/

Cyclic Structure of Glucose

The cyclic structure of glucose has been proposed to explain those facts that could not be explained by the open-chain structure of glucose. In fact, the open-chain structure of glucose explained most of its properties, but the following facts could not be explained by this structure-

(1) Despite having the aldehyde group, glucose does not give Schiff’s test and it does not form the hydrogensulphite addition product with NaHSO3.

(2) The pentaacetate of glucose does not react with hydroxylamine indicating the absence of the free -CHO group.

(3) Glucose is found to exist in two different crystalline forms namely α and ꞵ-forms. The α-form of glucose (m.p. = 419K) is obtained by crystallization from a concentrated solution of glucose at 303K, while the ꞵ-form (m.p. = 423K) is obtained by crystallization from hot and saturated aqueous solution at 371K. This behavior could not be explained by the open-chain structure for glucose.

In fact, the -OH group of the fifth carbon atom of glucose molecule adds to the -CHO group and forms a cyclic hemiacetal structure. Thus, glucose forms a six-membered ring in which -OH at C-5 is involved in a ring formation. This explains the absence of -CHO group and also the existence of glucose in two cyclic forms which exist in equilibrium with open-chain structure.

Download complete pdf notes of Cyclic Structure of Glucose from the following link-

pdf Notes of Cyclic Structure of Glucose

Important Tips for Preparation of IIT-JEE/NEET

  • Select a good mentor for all the subjects. Several educational channels and the best mentors of Physics, Chemistry, and Biology are available on YouTube for free. You may follow one of them for all the subjects rather than wandering here and there.
  • Centralize your study to the NCERT books and one reference book each for Physics, Chemistry, and Biology. Don’t follow too many books otherwise, you would not be able to complete your syllabus. Always remember, different books differ being only nineteen or twenty in text quality, but never differ of being nineteen and twenty-five. 
  • Follow quality notes of a good mentor for all the subjects. Don’t run behind the brand, but run behind the concise and effective notes of your mentor.
  • Make your own capsule notes for revision.
  • Maintain consistency and regularity in your preparation.
  • Revise the prepared topics regularly. Always remember, revision is not a waste of time but it makes you perfect. Always keep in mind that, “Revision is division” i.e. Revision improves your marks and ultimately your rank in the final selection.
  • Solve practice problems and previous year’s papers in the specified time frame. It would help you to finish your paper timely in the final examination.
  • Always be confident in your preparation but never be overconfident. Always read the question carefully and then answer. You usually make mistakes in overconfidence and it has to be reduced.

Important Reference Books

(1) Physics-          (1) Concept of Physics by H.C. Verma

                             (2) Modern’s abc of Objective Physics

(2) Chemistry-     (1) Dr. O.P. Tandon (GRB Publication)

                            (2) Modern’s abc of Objective Chemistry

(3) Biology-         (1) Biology by Trueman 

                            (2) Modern’s abc of Objective Biology

Download pdf notes of chemistry for NEET/AIIMS and IIT-JEE from the following link-

Chemistry Notes for IIT-JEE | NEET

Download pdf notes of chemistry for Class 11 from the following link-

https://chemistryforcompetition.com/class-11-chemistry-notes/

Download pdf notes of chemistry for Class 12 (English Medium) from the following link-

Class 12 Chemistry Notes

Download pdf notes of chemistry for Class 12 (Hindi Medium) from the following link-

Class 12 Chemistry Notes in Hindi

About Shailendra Shukla Sir

By profession, Shailendra Shukla Sir is a senior executive officer in a very reputed power generation company. He has been a professional teacher of competitive chemistry for a long time and his sole aim is to provide quality guidance to the aspirants of UPSC, State PSCs, IIT-JEE, AIIMS, NEET, and Academic examinations, especially to those who belong to the economically vulnerable class of society and cannot afford heavy tuition fees of professional institutions. 
For Video lectures and Live Classes of Shailendra Shukla sir visit “Exacademy” youtube channel https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCLPxVWdS2VBCN8YZ7Xaqnlg

EXACADEMY
For pdf notes, video lectures, and online tests Download the “Exacademy” Mobile App. Click Here for download-
http://onelink.to/exacademy
You may also follow Shailendra Shukla Sir on the “Exacademy” and “Chemistry for Competitions” telegram channels and the “Exacademy” Facebook group.
The link for the “Exacademy” Facebook group is here-
https://www.facebook.com/Exacademy-103655395096011/

 

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Classification of Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates
PPTs of Chemistry for Tutors/YouTubers
PPTs of Chemistry for Tutors/YouTubers

https://chemistryforcompetition.com/chemistry-ppts-for-tutors/

Classification of Carbohydrates

Classification of Carbohydrates is based on their behavior on hydrolysis. They have been broadly divided into the following three groups-

 (1)Monosaccharides- The simplest carbohydrates that cannot be hydrolyzed further to give the simpler unit of polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones are called a monosaccharide. About 20 monosaccharides are known to found in nature. Some common examples are glucose (C6H12O6), fructose (C6H12O6), ribose (C5H10O5), etc.

(2)Oligosaccharides- Such carbohydrates which yield two to ten monosaccharide units on hydrolysis, are called oligosaccharides. They are further classified as disaccharides, trisaccharides, tetrasaccharides, etc., depending upon the number of monosaccharides, they give on hydrolysis.

The most common oligosaccharides are disaccharides. The two monosaccharide units obtained on hydrolysis of a disaccharide may be the same or different. For example, one molecule of sucrose (C12H22O11), on hydrolysis gives one molecule each of glucose and fructose, whereas one molecule of maltose (C12H22O11), on hydrolysis gives two molecules of glucose.

Download complete pdf notes of Classification of Carbohydrates from the following link-

pdf Notes of Carbohydrates

How to Crack NEET in First Attempt

Being a doctor has always been one of the most attractive carriers for the students of science especially of the Biology stream. The earnings of MBBS doctors and their status in our society are really attractive but it is not very easy to crack NEET and acquire all these in a moment. However, it becomes rather easier if you prepare with proper planning and your effort is consistent in the proper direction. How to crack NEET in the first attempt? It is one of the most frequently asked questions by NEET aspirants. In fact, there is not a well-set strategy to crack NEET in the first attempt, but it is well established that the best strategy to crack NEET stands on the following four pillars-

(1) Teacher selection

It is the first and the most important criteria to crack NEET. A teacher of academic or below standard can never let you prepare well for NEET. So, you should select the best mentor that can prepare you well for NEET.

(2) Matter selection

For competitive preparation what is not to study is more important than what to study. You should emphasize more on important and relevant topics (hot spots) and practice more on quality study materials rather than being trapped in rubbish materials floating in the market.

Always remember, if your mentor selection is well then he would provide you the best and relevant study materials and therefore, material selection would become automatically well.

In my opinion, you should concentrate on NCERT books that are Encyclopedia of NEET and you should improve your application part by revision and solving practice papers and previous year’s papers within the prescribed time frame again and again.

(3)Time for starting preparation

When to start preparing for NEET? It is one of the most frequently asked questions by the NEET aspirants. In my opinion, you should start your preparation from class 11 and should maintain your tempo till the examinations. If you start too early then it would not be easy for you to maintain your pace for a longer time period and it would develop a frustration in you that is very dangerous for you and your preparation.

(4) Hard work

It is the fourth important pillar of your preparation to crack NEET in the First Attempt. You have selected the best mentors who are providing you the best study materials but you are not serious in your preparation but just wasting your time, then not even God can make you selected in NEET. In fact, there is no shortcut to success, except hard work. So, you should maintain consistency in your preparation. Regular study, regular revision, and solving practice problems and previous year’s papers in a specified time frame are the keys to your selection.

Important Tips for Preparation of NEET

  • Select a good mentor for all the subjects. Several educational channels and the best mentors of Physics, Chemistry, and Biology are available on YouTube for free. You may follow one of them for all the subjects rather than wandering here and there.
  • Centralize your study to the NCERT books and one reference book each for Physics, Chemistry, and Biology. Don’t follow too many books otherwise, you would not be able to complete your syllabus. Always remember, different books differ being only nineteen or twenty in text quality, but never differ of being nineteen and twenty-five. 
  • Follow quality notes of a good mentor for all the subjects. Don’t run behind the brand, but run behind the concise and effective notes of your mentor.
  • Make your own capsule notes for revision.
  • Maintain consistency and regularity in your preparation.
  • Revise the prepared topics regularly. Always remember, revision is not a waste of time but it makes you perfect. Always keep in mind that, “Revision is division” i.e. Revision improves your marks and ultimately your rank in the final selection.
  • Solve practice problems and previous year’s papers in the specified time frame. It would help you to finish your paper timely in the final examination.
  • Always be confident in your preparation but never be overconfident. Always read the question carefully and then answer. You usually make mistakes in overconfidence and it has to be reduced.

Important Reference Books

(1) Physics-          (1) Concept of Physics by H.C. Verma

                             (2) Modern’s abc of Objective Physics

(2) Chemistry-     (1) Dr. O.P. Tandon (GRB Publication)

                            (2) Modern’s abc of Objective Chemistry

(3) Biology-         (1) Biology by Trueman 

                            (2) Modern’s abc of Objective Biology

Download pdf notes of chemistry for NEET/AIIMS and IIT-JEE from the following link-

Chemistry Notes for IIT-JEE | NEET

Download pdf notes of chemistry for Class 11 from the following link-

https://chemistryforcompetition.com/class-11-chemistry-notes/

Download pdf notes of chemistry for Class 12 (English Medium) from the following link-

Class 12 Chemistry Notes

Download pdf notes of chemistry for Class 12 (Hindi Medium) from the following link-

Class 12 Chemistry Notes in Hindi

About Shailendra Shukla Sir

By profession, Shailendra Shukla Sir is a senior executive officer in a very reputed power generation company. He has been a professional teacher of competitive chemistry for a long time and his sole aim is to provide quality guidance to the aspirants of UPSC, State PSCs, IIT-JEE, AIIMS, NEET, and Academic examinations, especially to those who belong to the economically vulnerable class of society and cannot afford heavy tuition fees of professional institutions. 
For Video lectures and Live Classes of Shailendra Shukla sir visit “Exacademy” youtube channel https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCLPxVWdS2VBCN8YZ7Xaqnlg

EXACADEMY
For pdf notes, video lectures, and online tests Download the “Exacademy” Mobile App. Click Here for download-
http://onelink.to/exacademy
You may also follow Shailendra Shukla Sir on the “Exacademy” and “Chemistry for Competitions” telegram channels and the “Exacademy” Facebook group.
The link for the “Exacademy” Facebook group is here-
https://www.facebook.com/Exacademy-103655395096011/

 

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Carbohydrates | Classification | Examples | Structure

Carbohydrates
PPTs of Chemistry for Tutors/YouTubers
PPTs of Chemistry for Tutors/YouTubers

https://chemistryforcompetition.com/chemistry-ppts-for-tutors/

Carbohydrates

“The optically active, polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones or the compounds which produce these compounds on hydrolysis are called Carbohydrates”.

The most common examples of carbohydrates are cane sugar (C12H22O11), glucose (C6H12O6), fructose (C6H12O6), starch [(C6H10O5)n], cellulose, etc. Most of the carbohydrates have the general formula, Cx(H2O)y. For example, the molecular formula of glucose (C6H12O6) fits into this general formula, C6(H2O)6. However, all the compounds which fit into this formula may not be essentially carbohydrates. For example, acetic acid (CH3COOH) fits into this general formula, C2(H2O)2, but it is not a carbohydrate. Similarly, rhamnose, (C6H12O5) does not fit in this definition, but it is a carbohydrate.

Since, the ratio of hydrogen and oxygen atoms in carbohydrates are in general, the same as in water (2:1), they were considered as hydrates of carbon and named as carbohydrates. Now, it has been well established that, carbohydrates do not contain water and therefore, their name carbohydrate is erroneous, but because of being well established, it still persists.

Some of the carbohydrates, which are sweet in taste, are also called sugars. The most common sugar, used in our homes is sucrose, whereas the sugar present in milk is lactose. Carbohydrates are also called saccharides (Greek, sakcharon means sugar).

Classification of Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates are classified on the basis of their behavior on hydrolysis. They have been broadly divided into the following three groups-

 (1)Monosaccharides- The simplest carbohydrates that cannot be hydrolyzed further to give the simpler unit of polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones are called a monosaccharide. About 20 monosaccharides are known to found in nature. Some common examples are glucose (C6H12O6), fructose (C6H12O6), ribose (C5H10O5), etc.

(2)Oligosaccharides- Such carbohydrates which yield two to ten monosaccharide units on hydrolysis, are called oligosaccharides. They are further classified as disaccharides, trisaccharides, tetrasaccharides, etc., depending upon the number of monosaccharides, they give on hydrolysis.

The most common oligosaccharides are disaccharides. The two monosaccharide units obtained on hydrolysis of a disaccharide may be the same or different. For example, one molecule of sucrose (C12H22O11), on hydrolysis gives one molecule each of glucose and fructose, whereas one molecule of maltose (C12H22O11), on hydrolysis gives two molecules of glucose.

Download complete pdf notes of Carbohydrates from the following link-

pdf Notes of Carbohydrates

Important Tips for Preparation of IIT-JEE/NEET

  • Select a good mentor for all the subjects. Several educational channels and the best mentors of Physics, Chemistry, and Biology are available on YouTube for free. You may follow one of them for all the subjects rather than wandering here and there.
  • Centralize your study to the NCERT books and one reference book each for Physics, Chemistry, and Biology. Don’t follow too many books otherwise, you would not be able to complete your syllabus. Always remember, different books differ being only nineteen or twenty in text quality, but never differ of being nineteen and twenty-five. 
  • Follow quality notes of a good mentor for all the subjects. Don’t run behind the brand, but run behind the concise and effective notes of your mentor.
  • Make your own capsule notes for revision.
  • Maintain consistency and regularity in your preparation.
  • Revise the prepared topics regularly. Always remember, revision is not a waste of time but it makes you perfect. Always keep in mind that, “Revision is division” i.e. Revision improves your marks and ultimately your rank in the final selection.
  • Solve practice problems and previous year’s papers in the specified time frame. It would help you to finish your paper timely in the final examination.
  • Always be confident in your preparation but never be overconfident. Always read the question carefully and then answer. You usually make mistakes in overconfidence and it has to be reduced.

Important Reference Books

(1) Physics-          (1) Concept of Physics by H.C. Verma

                             (2) Modern’s abc of Objective Physics

(2) Chemistry-     (1) Dr. O.P. Tandon (GRB Publication)

                            (2) Modern’s abc of Objective Chemistry

(3) Biology-         (1) Biology by Trueman 

                            (2) Modern’s abc of Objective Biology

Download pdf notes of chemistry for NEET/AIIMS and IIT-JEE from the following link-

Chemistry Notes for IIT-JEE | NEET

Download pdf notes of chemistry for Class 11 from the following link-

https://chemistryforcompetition.com/class-11-chemistry-notes/

Download pdf notes of chemistry for Class 12 (English Medium) from the following link-

Class 12 Chemistry Notes

Download pdf notes of chemistry for Class 12 (Hindi Medium) from the following link-

Class 12 Chemistry Notes in Hindi

About Shailendra Shukla Sir

By profession, Shailendra Shukla Sir is a senior executive officer in a very reputed power generation company. He has been a professional teacher of competitive chemistry for a long time and his sole aim is to provide quality guidance to the aspirants of UPSC, State PSCs, IIT-JEE, AIIMS, NEET, and Academic examinations, especially to those who belong to the economically vulnerable class of society and cannot afford heavy tuition fees of professional institutions. 
For Video lectures and Live Classes of Shailendra Shukla sir visit “Exacademy” youtube channel https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCLPxVWdS2VBCN8YZ7Xaqnlg

EXACADEMY
For pdf notes, video lectures, and online tests Download the “Exacademy” Mobile App. Click Here for download-
http://onelink.to/exacademy
You may also follow Shailendra Shukla Sir on the “Exacademy” and “Chemistry for Competitions” telegram channels and the “Exacademy” Facebook group.
The link for the “Exacademy” Facebook group is here-
https://www.facebook.com/Exacademy-103655395096011/